Gas Bubble Disease in fish is characterized by the presence of bubbles that are trapped in their skin, fins, or even eyes. It is important to note that this disease does not affect the swim bladder or buoyancy of the fish. The cause of this condition is the saturation of water with dissolved gas, resulting in the formation of small bubbles, also known as microbubbles. These microbubbles gradually merge to form larger bubbles, which are absorbed by the fish and form bubbles in its tissues. The occurrence of microbubbles in an aquarium can result from several factors, and identifying and addressing the root cause of the issue is crucial for the successful treatment of the disease. There is no relation of swim bladder or buoyancy disorders with Gas Bubble Disease.
What is Gas Bubble Disease?
Gas Bubble Disease is a condition that affects fish and is characterized by the presence of small bubbles within the fish’s body, such as in its skin, fins, or eyes. This occurs when the water in the aquarium becomes supersaturated with gases, which means that more gas is dissolved in the water than it can normally hold. The excess gas is then absorbed by the fish’s body and forms bubbles in its tissues. The gas that is most commonly involved in this condition is nitrogen, although other gases like carbon dioxide and oxygen can also be involved. However, these gases are usually processed quickly by the fish’s tissues and do not form bubbles.
Gas Bubble Disease in Freshwater Fish: Symptoms
Visible bubbles may appear in the anterior chamber behind the cornea of the eye, within the skin as a lump, or between the fin rays in the clear membrane of the fins. While internal bubbles may cause tissue degeneration, they are rare without external bubbles. Cloudy water may be a sign of microbubbles held in suspension, which can be tested by collecting a sample of the water in a glass and allowing it to rest undisturbed for 30-45 minutes. If the cloudiness is due to suspended particles, sediment will settle on the bottom of the glass. If it is microbubbles, the water will become clear and small bubbles may adhere to the inside of the glass. Cloudy water can also be a result of algae, bacterial blooms, or suspended debris.
Gas Bubble Disease diagnosis
Gas bubble disease is often diagnosed through a physical examination of all animals within an aquarium or pond where an outbreak is suspected. If bubbles are visible on the skin or fin, a fine needle aspirate may be performed to determine whether the bubble is air or a clear fluid.
To detect internal bubbles, an X-ray radiograph may be necessary, although sedation is often required to get a clear image. It’s also possible for gas bubbles to be present within gill tissue, which can be observed under a microscope using a wet mount of a gill biopsy, a common diagnostic procedure in aquatic settings.
the root causes of gas bubble disease
There are several potential causes of microbubbles in fish ponds or aquariums, including cracked or disjointed pipes or filtration components, waterfalls, sudden changes in water temperature, and gas supersaturation.
In home aquariums, cracked or disjointed pipes and filtration components are a common cause of microbubbles. Air can be sucked in through a pinprick hole, which is then pressurized and blown into the aquarium. It is important to check the pumps and filter equipment to ensure that no air is getting into the pump and being blown into the aquarium.
Waterfalls and other features can also introduce bubbles into the aquarium, especially if the water is not filled to the top. The impact of the water mixing can cause bubbles of various sizes, which can cause supersaturation of gas in the water.
Sudden changes in water temperature can also cause bubbles to form, as the partial pressure of a gas changes with water temperature. It is important to test the water temperature and match new water to the current water temperature during water changes to avoid sudden temperature changes.
Gas supersaturation can occur when the total pressure of gases within the water is higher than the surrounding atmospheric pressure. Microbubbles can form due to atmospheric weather changes, so it is important to monitor the barometric pressure surrounding the tank for a few days to identify any patterns.
In ponds or aquariums with abundant algae growth or plants, oxygen can be produced by photosynthesis and supersaturate the water with oxygen, leading to the formation of tiny bubbles on the plant leaves or algae strands. If the water temperature is warm, this can lead to gas bubble disease.
Gas Bubble Disease Therapy
The first step in treating gas bubble disease is identifying and addressing the underlying cause. This can be challenging, as there are numerous potential causes, such as issues with filtration systems, aeration, and water temperature. It is crucial to identify and correct the cause of the gas bubbles to prevent the condition from worsening.
A veterinarian may remove the bubbles by aspirating them with a fine needle and syringe, and antibiotics may be prescribed to aid in recovery. In some cases, barometric chambers may be used if available.
Once the underlying cause is addressed, the microbubbles will eventually disperse on their own. Gently stirring the water can help to degas it, and gradually lowering the water temperature can increase the water’s ability to hold dissolved gas. However, it’s important not to cool the water too rapidly, as this can stress the fish.
If bubbles become trapped in a fish’s body, it can be similar to decompression sickness in SCUBA divers. If the supersaturation of the water is not corrected, the gases may be fatal to the fish before they can naturally disperse. Bubbles in a fish’s organs can also be deadly, while bubbles in their fin capillaries may cause tissue damage and even fin loss.
How to Avoid Gas Bubble Illness
To prevent gas bubble disease in your aquarium or pond, it is crucial to identify and eliminate all possible causes.
Ensure that all plumbing and filtration components are well-connected and properly sealed to prevent air from entering the water.
Maintain the water level at an appropriate height and check for leaks regularly. Keep track of your water change schedule to detect any leaks early.
When adding water during water changes, always check and adjust the temperature to match the current water temperature, within a few degrees.
Regularly monitor the water for microbubbles resembling champagne bubbles. Excessive bubbles on aquarium glass or decor items, or on the sides of ponds, should not be present.